Fox & Geese is a game that originated from Scandinavia. A two player game that focuses mainly on strategy. This game can be played in under 30 minutes and as you become more experienced, you can aim to reduce your game time. To win, the "fox" player must trap the "geese" opponent, surrounding the geese so that the opponent cannot move. This is an unevenly matched game in which the chosen "fox" player has more maneuvers.
Fox & Geese Solitaire was said to be invented by a prisoner during the French Revolution. It is a one player game and can take less than 15 minutes to play. A great game if you are short on time. To win, you must aim to remove all the pegs from the board with one remaining at the center hole.
Horseshoe is a game that has been played in many parts of the world, including ancient China and it requires two players. It is easy to learn and often will take less than 10 minutes to play. To win, block the opponent so that your opponent cannot move. This is a simple game, but can be deceptively easy.
Four Field Kono is a game originated from Korea. Two players required and usually this game can be played within 30 minutes or less. As you improve, you would want to beat your game duration time. To win, the player who is able to capture all the opponent's pegs or block them to prevent the opponent from moving, wins the game.
Alquerque is a game similar to checkers. This game originated from ancient Egypt and can be played usually in less than 30 minutes. To win, you must capture all of your opponents pegs.
Timing yourself for each of the above games is a way to challenge yourself and your opponent.